Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Pascual Orozco, Early Leader of the Mexican Revolution

Pascual Orozco, Early Leader of the Mexican Revolution Pascual Orozco (January 28, 1882–August 30, 1915) was a Mexican muleteer, warlord, and revolutionary who participated in the early parts of the Mexican Revolution (1910–1920). More of an opportunist than an idealist, Orozco and his army fought in many key battles between 1910 and 1914 before he â€Å"backed the wrong horse,† said General Victoriano Huerta, whose brief presidency lasted from 1913 to 1914. Exiled, Orozco was captured and executed by Texas Rangers. Fast Facts: Pascual Orozco Known For: Mexican revolutionaryBorn: January 28, 1882 in Santa Inà ©s,  Chihuahua, MexicoParents: Pascual Orozco Sr. and Amanda Orozco y VzquezaDied: August 30, 1915 in the Van Horn Mountains, MexicoNotable Quote: â€Å"Here are the wrappers: send more tamales.† Early Life Pascual Orozco was born on January 28, 1882, in Santa Inà ©s,  Chihuahua, Mexico. Before the Mexican Revolution broke out, he was a small-time entrepreneur, storekeeper, and muleteer. He came from a lower-middle-class family in the northern state of Chihuahua and by working hard and saving money, he was able to acquire a respectable amount of wealth. As a self-starter who made his own fortune, he became disenchanted with the corrupt regime of Porfirio Dà ­az, who tended to favor old money and those with connections, neither of which Orozco had. Orozco became involved with the Flores Magà ³n brothers, Mexican dissidents trying to stir up rebellion from safety in the United States. Orozco and Madero In 1910, opposition presidential candidate Francisco I. Madero, who lost due to election fraud, called for a revolution against the crooked Dà ­az. Orozco organized a small force in the Guerrero area of Chihuahua and quickly won a series of skirmishes against federal forces. His force grew with every victory, swelled by local peasants who were drawn by patriotism, greed, or both. By the time Madero returned to Mexico from exile in the United States, Orozco commanded a force of several thousand men. Madero promoted him first to colonel and then general, even though Orozco had no military background. Early Victories While Emiliano Zapatas army kept Dà ­az federal forces busy in the south, Orozco and his armies took over the north. The uneasy alliance of Orozco, Madero, and Pancho Villa captured several key towns in Northern Mexico, including Ciudad Juarez, which Madero made his provisional capital. Orozco maintained his businesses during his time as general. On one occasion, his first action upon capturing a town was to sack the home of a business rival. Orozco was a cruel and ruthless commander. He once sent the uniforms of dead federal soldiers back to Dà ­az with a note: â€Å"Here are the wrappers: send more tamales.† Revolt Against Madero The armies of the north drove Dà ­az from Mexico in May 1911 and Madero took over. Madero saw Orozco as a violent bumpkin, useful to the war effort but out of his depth in government. Orozco, who was unlike Villa in that he was fighting not for idealism but under the assumption that he would be made at least a state governor, was outraged. Orozco had accepted the post of general, but he resigned it when he refused to fight Zapata, who had rebelled against Madero for not implementing land reform. In March 1912 Orozco and his men, called Orozquistas or Colorados, once again took to the field. Orozco in 1912–1913 Fighting Zapata to the south and Orozco to the north, Madero turned to two generals: Victoriano Huerta, a relic left over from the days of Dà ­az, and Pancho Villa, who still supported him. Huerta and Villa were able to rout Orozco in several key battles. Orozcos poor control of his men contributed to his losses: he allowed them to sack and loot captured towns, which turned the locals against him. Orozco fled to the United States but returned when Huerta overthrew and assassinated Madero in February 1913. President Huerta, in need of allies, offered him a generalship and Orozco accepted. Huertas Downfall Orozco was once again fighting Pancho Villa, who was outraged by Huertas murder of Madero. Two more generals appeared on the scene: Alvaro Obregà ³n and Venustiano Carranza, both at the head of huge armies in Sonora. Villa, Zapata, Obregà ³n, and Carranza were united by their hatred of Huerta, and their combined might was far too much for the new president, even with Orozco and his colorados on his side. When Villa crushed the federales at the battle of Zacatecas in June 1914, Huerta fled the country. Orozco fought on for a while but he was seriously outgunned and he, too, went into exile in 1914. Death After the fall of Huerta, Villa, Carranza, Obregà ³n, and Zapata began slugging it out among themselves. Seeing an opportunity, Orozco and Huerta met up in New Mexico and began planning a new revolt. They were captured by American forces and charged with conspiracy. Huerta died in prison. Orozco escaped and was later shot and killed by Texas Rangers on August 30, 1915. According to the Texas version, he and his men tried to steal some horses and were tracked down and killed in the ensuing gunfight. According to the Mexicans, Orozco and his men were defending themselves from greedy Texas ranchers, who wanted their horses. Legacy Today, Orozco is considered a minor figure in the Mexican Revolution. He never reached the presidency and modern historians and readers prefer the flair of Villa or the idealism of Zapata. It should not be forgotten, however, that at the time of Maderos return to Mexico, Orozco commanded the largest and most powerful of the revolutionary armies and that he won several key battles in the early days of the revolution. Although it has been asserted by some that Orozco was an opportunist who coldly used the revolution to his own gain, that does not change the fact that if not for Orozco, Dà ­az may well have crushed Madero in 1911. Sources McLynn, Frank. Villa and Zapata: A History of the Mexican Revolution. New York: Carroll and Graf, 2000.Pascual Orozco, Jr. (1882–1915).  Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, Encyclopedia.com, 2019.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Biography of Sarah Grimké, Antislavery Feminist

Biography of Sarah Grimkà ©, Antislavery Feminist Sarah Moore Grimkà © (November 26, 1792–December 23, 1873) was the elder of two sisters working against slavery and for womens rights. Sarah and Angelina Grimkà © were also known for their first-hand knowledge of slavery as members of a South Carolina slaveholding family, and for their experience with being criticized as women for speaking publicly. Fast Fact: Sarah Moore Grimkà © Known For: Pre-Civil War abolitionist who also fought for womens rightsAlso Known As: Sarah Moore Grimkà ©Born: November 26, 1792 in Charleston, South CarolinaParents: Mary Smith Grimke, John Faucheraud GrimkeDied: December 23, 1873 in BostonPublished Works: Epistle to the Clergy of the Southern States (1836), Letters on the Equality of the Sexes and the Condition of Women  (1837). The pieces were first published in Massachusetts-based abolitionist publications The Spectator and The Liberator, and later as a book.Notable Quote: I ask no favors for my sex, I surrender not our claim to equality. All I ask of our brethren is that they will take their feet from off our necks, and permit us to stand upright on the ground which God has designed us to occupy. Early Life Sarah Moore Grimkà © was born in Charleston, South Carolina on November 26, 1792, as the sixth child of Mary Smith Grimke and John Faucheraud Grimke. Mary Smith Grimke was the daughter of a wealthy South Carolina family. John Grimke, an Oxford-educated judge  who had been a captain in the Continental Army in the American Revolution, had been elected to South Carolinas House of Representatives.  In his service as a judge, he served as the chief justice for the state. The family lived during summers in Charleston and the rest of the year on their Beaufort plantation. The plantation had once grown rice, but with the invention of the cotton gin, the family turned to cotton as the main crop. The family owned many slaves who worked in the fields and in the house. Sarah, like all her siblings, had a nursemaid who was a slave and also had a companion, a slave her own age who was her special servant and playmate. Sarahs companion died when Sarah was 8, and she refused to have another one assigned to her. Sarah saw her older brother Thomas- six years her elder and the second-born of the siblings- as a role model who followed their father into law, politics, and social reform. Sarah argued politics and other topics with her brothers at home and studied from Thomas lessons. When Thomas went away to Yale Law School, Sarah gave up her dream of equal education. Another brother,  Frederick  Grimkà ©, also graduated from Yale University, and then moved to Ohio and became a judge there. Angelina Grimkà © The year after Thomas left, Sarahs sister Angelina was born. Angelina was the 14th child in the family; three had not survived infancy. Sarah, then 13, convinced her parents to permit her to be Angelinas godmother, and Sarah became like a second mother to her youngest sibling. Sarah, who taught Bible lessons at church, was caught and punished for teaching a maid to read- and the maid was whipped. After that experience, Sarah did not teach reading to any of the other slaves. Angelina, who was able to attend a girls school for daughters of the elite, was also horrified at the sight of whip marks on a slave boy she saw at school. Sarah was the one who comforted her sister after the experience. Northern Exposure When Sarah was 26, Judge Grimkà © traveled to Philadelphia and then to the Atlantic seashore to try to recover his health. Sarah accompanied him on this trip and cared for her father. When the attempt at a cure failed and he died, she stayed in Philadelphia for several more months. All told, she spent nearly a full year away from the South. This long exposure to Northern culture was a turning point for Sarah Grimkà ©. In Philadelphia on her own, Sarah encountered Quakers- members of the Society of Friends. She read books by the Quaker leader John Woolman and considered joining this group that opposed slavery and included women in leadership roles, but first she wanted to return home. Sarah returned to Charleston, and in less than a month she moved back to Philadelphia, intending it to be a permanent relocation. Her mother opposed her move. In Philadelphia, Sarah joined the Society of Friends and began to wear simple Quaker clothing. Sarah Grimke returned again in 1827 for a short visit to her family in Charleston. By this time, Angelina was in charge of caring for their mother and managing the household. Angelina decided to become a Quaker like Sarah, thinking she could convert others around Charleston. By 1829, Angelina had given up on converting others in the South to the anti-slavery cause, so she joined Sarah in Philadelphia. The sisters pursued their own education- and found that they did not have the support of their church or society. Sarah gave up her hope of becoming a clergy person and Angelina gave up her dream of studying at Catherine Beechers school. Antislavery Efforts Following these changes in their lives, Sarah and Angelina got involved with the abolitionist movement, which moved beyond the American Colonization Society. The sisters joined the American Anti-Slavery Society soon after its 1830 founding. They also became active in an organization working to boycott food produced with slave labor. On Aug. 30, 1835, Angelina wrote to abolitionist leader William Lloyd Garrison of her interest in the antislavery effort, including mention of what shed learned from her first-hand knowledge of slavery. Without her permission, Garrison published the letter, and Angelina found herself famous (and for some, infamous). The letter was widely reprinted. Their Quaker meeting was hesitant about supporting immediate emancipation, as the abolitionists did, and was also not supportive of women speaking out in public. So in 1836, the sisters moved to Rhode Island where Quakers were more accepting of their activism. That year, Angelina published her track, An Appeal to the Christian Women of the South, arguing for their support to end slavery through the force of persuasion. Sarah wrote An Epistle to the Clergy of the Southern States, in which she confronted and argued against the typical Biblical arguments used to justify slavery. Both publications argued against slavery on strong Christian grounds. Sarah followed that with An Address to Free Colored Americans. Speaking Tour The publication of those two works led to many invitations to speak. Sarah and Angelina toured for 23 weeks in 1837, using their own money and visiting 67 cities. Sarah was to speak to the Massachusetts Legislature on abolition; she became ill and Angelina spoke for her. Also that year, Angelina wrote her Appeal to the Women of the Nominally Free States, and the two sisters spoke before the Anti-Slavery Convention of American Women. Womens Rights Congregational ministers in Massachusetts denounced the sisters for speaking before assemblies including males and for questioning mens interpretation of Scripture. The epistle from the ministers was published by Garrison in 1838. Inspired by the criticism of women speaking publicly which was directed against the sisters, Sarah came out for womens rights. She published Letters on the Equality of the Sexes and the Condition of Women. In this work, Sarah Grimke advocated for both a continued domestic role for women and the ability to speak out about public issues. Angelina gave a speech in Philadelphia before a group that included women and men. A mob, angry about this violation of the cultural taboo of women speaking before such mixed groups, attacked the building, and the building was burned down the next day. Theodore Weld and Family Life In 1838, Angelina married Theodore Dwight Weld, another abolitionist and lecturer, before an interracial group of friends and acquaintances. Because Weld was not a Quaker, Angelina was voted out (expelled) of their Quaker meeting; Sarah was also voted out because she had attended the wedding. Sarah moved with Angelina and Theodore to a New Jersey farm and they focused on Angelinas three children, the first of whom was born in 1839, for some years. Other reformers, including Elizabeth Cady Stanton and her husband, stayed with them at times. The three supported themselves by taking in boarders and opening a boarding school. Later Years and Death After the Civil War, Sarah remained active in the womens rights movement. By 1868, Sarah, Angelina, and Theodore were all serving as officers of the Massachusetts Woman Suffrage Association. On March 7, 1870, the sisters deliberately flouted the suffrage laws by voting along with 42 others. Sarah remained active in the suffrage movement until her death in Boston in 1873. Legacy Sarah and her sister continued to write letters of support to other activists on womens and slavery issues for the rest of their lives. (Angelina died just a few years after her sister, on Oct. 26, 1879.) Sarah Grimkà ©s longest epistle, Letters on the Equality of the Sexes and the Condition of Women, had a profound effect on the womens rights movement because it is considered the first developed public argument for womens equality in the U.S. Generations of advocates would take up the mantle of womens rights in later years- from Susan B. Anthony to Betty Friedan, who were both considered pioneers in the fight for womens suffrage and feminism- but Grimkà © was the very first to give full throat, in public fashion, to the argument that women should have equal rights with men. Sources â€Å"Abolitionist Newspapers.†Ã‚  Gale Library of Daily Life: Slavery in America, Encyclopedia.com, 2019.â€Å"Grimke Sisters.†Ã‚  National Parks Service, U.S. Department of the Interior.â€Å"Sarah Moore Grimkà ©.†Ã‚  National Womens History Museum.ï » ¿Ã¢â‚¬Å"Sarah Moore Grimke Quote.†Ã‚  AZquotes.com.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Influence of Organic Evolution (Evolutionary Biology) in What You Do Essay

Influence of Organic Evolution (Evolutionary Biology) in What You Do in Your Professional and Family Life - Essay Example Since the inception of this theory, the origin of man has been directly implicated in the tangle. Evolution theory also expounds the cumulative characteristics change in organism in successive generations related by descent. Besides, it accounts for the origin of all types of organisms now living, The Theory of Special Creation, on the other hand, opposes this concept asserting that every type of organism was created in such a special way and not descent-related. By this, the resulting successful progeny and variants, which had different survival value, are chosen through a natural process. How will then the learned knowledge on Evolutionary Biology or Organic Evolution influence my undertakings The amount of knowledge on Organic Evolution seems to have an incomplete pattern. Looking back at the past century, scientists had put much emphasis on studying struggle for existence as part of the evolutionary theory. It is a fact that man still regards struggle and conflict as necessities of life. Even phasing out some members of social groups was seen as a "legitimate" way of improving a special human race. The Law of Survival of the Fittest gives way to all difficulties, which is a defect of the lower world of nature. In an on-line publication, Dr. Donald G.

Sunday, February 2, 2020

External Marketing Environment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

External Marketing Environment - Essay Example A firm is frequently oblivious to the factors that affect its future. A marketer can comprehend the marketing environment through conducting a marketing research. Acquaintance to the environment assists an organization to modify its promotional mix and recognize new opportunities. Lamb et al (2011, p. 110) cite economic, cultural and social, business, legal and political and demographic elements as the constituents of the external marketing environment. Economic Environment There is no more significant component in the external environment affecting marketing than the economic environment. Lamb noted that the affects the operation of a company on both at micro and macro levels. Micro-level refers to the individual company while the macro level implies the broader industry, country or international. i. Supply and Demand When there is the absence of government intervention and control, supply and demand are the basic underlying forces of the economic dimension. Supply refers to the num ber of goods and services sellers and producers are willing to bring to the market at given prices at a given time (Lamb et al., 2011, p. 112). Demand, on the other hand, refers to the number of goods and services the buyers are willing to buy at a given price and time. ... When such a situation occurs, there is either a shortage or a surplus. In a competitive market structure, when a surplus or a shortage occurs, changes occur until equilibrium is restored. In the case of a surplus, the price is usually lowered to meet the demand level in the short run. In the long run, either the supply will decrease, as the quantities offered are decreased by some firms making production cuts or by other firms going out of business. When a shortage occurs, a company must carefully assess whether this condition id temporary or is actually a market need not being satisfied. ii. The Market and Exchange In every market economy there is a way for the market equilibrium price and quantity to be achieved. The mechanism for doing this by bridging the gap between supply and demand is the marketplace itself. Marketplace bridges the gap between what is produced and what is consumed, making the right quantity available to meet the market need (Lamb et al, 2011, p., 113) iii. Gen eral Economic Change The economic conditions in a country and the state of national economy change over time. Movements and fluctuations in the economy often follow patterns and have been described as business cycles (Lamb et al, 2011, p. 113). These cycles historically have consisted of four stages which include recession, prosperity, depression, and recovery. Cultural and social Environment In reference to Lamb et al (2011, p. 114), the cultural-social environment is replicated in the other four major environments external to the organization’s marketing mix.  

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Baseball Essay -- essays research papers

I stood yesterday afternoon engaged in the immense time consuming game of baseball. I stood there contemplating on what ideas, mainly about baseball, were being distorted and confused. Then it hit me†¦   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  There is much dissatisfaction in the fact that baseball, besides all other sports, is played at an exceptionally sluggish rate and in most cases might not ever end. Many spectators see baseball as a boring sport that wastes their time. I mean just imagine what else you could be accomplishing if you weren’t sitting at a baseball game relaxing with your family, enjoying a delightful hotdog, on a nice summer day, while watching your favorite team play Although baseball seems especially appealing to people, there are others who believe that no matter what the situation is, whether it be day or night, summer or winter, preseason or playoffs, baseball will always keep it amazingly leisurely pace and keep its viewers hypnotized by its incredible monotony†¦   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  It is indeed natural for people to consider from experience that if something seems tedious then it most likely is; but no one ever thinks about the people who essentially recognize the truth about baseball. These people, whether black or white, tall or short, fat or skinny, are the athletes, rich or poor, who play the sport and realistically know the true joys of their sport†¦   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  There is nothing more common among...

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Barriers to learning Essay

As part of the president’s initiative to remove â€Å"barriers to learning† at a regional midwestern university, an analysis of student services operations was conducted. The analysis revealed that the barriers deemed most important by students were those that would delay or prevent them from registering for classes. These barriers fell into three areas (Blanchard, 2010): 1) Resolving issues relating to fines accrued over the previous terms (e.g., library, parking, late fees) 2) Completing forms accurately and meeting processing deadlines for financial aid in time to enroll in classes. 3) Acquiring appropriate advice so that they enrolled in the right classes (avoiding the problems associated with drops and adds) Questions and Answers 1) What are the training objectives for the CSS training program? Indicate how these objectives are tied to the KSA requirements. Assume that all trainees have college degrees but need KSAs in all other areas listed in the Qualifications section. The training objectives should be as follows: Should be able to establish supervisory skills, the computer skills required are spreadsheet applications and word processing. Should be able to correspond completely with others, conflict management, and solving problems. These objectives would be bound together due to trainees needing all these requirements to receive supervision, as well as the skill to supervise. The training would be to establish all of these skills. 2) On the basis of the training objectives, provide a training agenda and indicate the time allocated and order of modules in your program. Writing, reading, and interpretation skills should be 3 weeks, computer skills should be 4 weeks, communication skills should be 2 weeks, having knowledge of the university should be 3 weeks, and supervisory skills should be 4 weeks. 3) For each module, describe the goals of the module and the training methods you will use to accomplish it. Provide your rationale. The goal for writing, reading, and interpretation skills would be to help trainees understand how to write memos, notices, and letters, read to clarify instructions, manuals, and policies. The computing skills goal would be to help trainees learn what the university is using and how to use them. Trainees need to be able to use the file management system that the school has to offer. Having this system for computer demonstration, for practice sessions and in the classrooms. The communication skills will help to enable the trainees to be able to communicate complicated policies. Training methods would be laboratory and workshops. Knowledge of the university training session will help the trainees master the university policies, federal and state laws (having to do with the university). Supervisory skills will help trainees to accept supervision from the a dministrator of a department and supervise customer service representatives. 4) How will you evaluate whether each person in your training program has mastered the knowledge and skill levels needed to perform as a CSS? Describe the types of questions you would ask of those supervising the CSS employees graduating from your program. I would survey each person with exams, quizzes and interviews. The questions that I would the supervisors of who is supervising the CSS employees graduating from the program would have to go with the responsibilities along with the authority the employees will be given. If there happens to be a space in between their training and job responsibilities that has been displayed, then there can be disorganization.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

A Look Into Sexual Harassment - 1231 Words

A Look into Sexual Harassment A Look into Sexual Harassment Sexual Harassment is a form of sex discrimination which is a violation of Title VII of the Civil Right Act of 1964. Sexual Harassment cases come in two different forms, quid pro quo and atmosphere of harassment (hostile work environment). Here we will look at some facts and examples, statistics, and one cases involving sexual harassment. First we start with the facts. Quid pro quo means something for something, and a hostile work environment is making the atmosphere at work uncomfortable due to invitations, language, pictures, and suggestions. Sexual harassment can occur in a variety of circumstances, including but not limited to the following (facts): * The†¦show more content†¦Here is a partial graph from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission website showing the last 11 years of sexual harassment cases (): | FY 1997 | FY 1998 | FY 1999 | FY 2000 | FY 2001 | FY 2002 | Receipts | 15,889 | 15,618 | 15,222 | 15,836 | 15,45 | 14,396 | % of Charges by Males | 11.60% | 12.90% | 12.10% | 13.60% | 13.70% | 14.90% | Resolutions | 17,333 | 17,115 | 16,524 | 16,726 | 16,383 | 15,792 | Monetary Benefits (Millions) | $49.50 | $34.30 | $50.30 | $54.60 | $53.00 | $50.30 | | | | | | | | | FY 2003 | FY 2004 | FY 2005 | FY 2006 | FY 2007 | Receipts | 13,566 | 13,136 | 12,679 | 12,025 | 12,510 | % of Charges by Males | 14.70% | 15.10% | 14.30% | 15.40% | 16.00% | Resolutions | 14,534 | 13,786 | 12,859 | 11,936 | 11,592 | Monetary Benefits (Millions) | $50.00 | $37.10 | $47.90 | $48.80 | $49.90 | Third, we will look at a sexual harassment case. 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